Form & Fitness Q & A
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The Cyclingnews form & fitness panel
Carrie Cheadle, MA (www.carriecheadle.com)
is a Sports Psychology consultant who has dedicated her career to helping
athletes of all ages and abilities perform to their potential. Carrie
specialises in working with cyclists, in disciplines ranging from track
racing to mountain biking. She holds a bachelors degree in Psychology
from Sonoma State University as well as a masters degree in Sport Psychology
from John F. Kennedy University.
Dave Palese (www.davepalese.com)
is a USA Cycling licensed coach and masters' class road racer with 16
years' race experience. He coaches racers and riders of all abilities
from his home in southern Maine, USA, where he lives with his wife Sheryl,
daughter Molly, and two cats, Miranda and Mu-Mu.
Kelby Bethards, MD received a Bachelor of
Science in Electrical Engineering from Iowa State University (1994) before
obtaining an M.D. from the University of Iowa College of Medicine in 2000.
Has been a racing cyclist 'on and off' for 20 years, and when time allows,
he races Cat 3 and 35+. He is a team physician for two local Ft Collins,
CO, teams, and currently works Family Practice in multiple settings: rural,
urgent care, inpatient and the like.
Fiona Lockhart (www.trainright.com)
is a USA Cycling Expert Coach, and holds certifications from USA Weightlifting
(Sports Performance Coach), the National Strength and Conditioning Association
(Certified Strength and Conditioning Coach), and the National Academy
for Sports Nutrition (Primary Sports Nutritionist). She is the Sports
Science Editor for Carmichael Training Systems, and has been working in
the strength and conditioning and endurance sports fields for over 10
years; she's also a competitive mountain biker.
Eddie Monnier (www.velo-fit.com)
is a USA Cycling certified Elite Coach and a Category II racer. He holds
undergraduate degrees in anthropology (with departmental honors) and philosophy
from Emory University and an MBA from The Wharton School of Business.
Eddie is a proponent of training with power. He coaches cyclists (track,
road and mountain bike) of all abilities and with wide ranging goals (with
and without power meters). He uses internet tools to coach riders from
David Fleckenstein, MPT (www.physiopt.com)
is a physical therapist practicing in Boise, ID. His clients have included
World and U.S. champions, Olympic athletes and numerous professional athletes.
He received his B.S. in Biology/Genetics from Penn State and his Master's
degree in Physical Therapy from Emory University. He specializes in manual
medicine treatment and specific retraining of spine and joint stabilization
musculature. He is a former Cat I road racer and Expert mountain biker.
Since 1986 Steve Hogg (www.cyclefitcentre.com)
has owned and operated Pedal Pushers, a cycle shop specialising in rider
positioning and custom bicycles. In that time he has positioned riders
from all cycling disciplines and of all levels of ability with every concievable
cycling problem.They include World and National champions at one end of
the performance spectrum to amputees and people with disabilities at the
Current riders that Steve has positioned include Davitamon-Lotto's Nick
Gates, Discovery's Hayden Roulston, National Road Series champion, Jessica
Ridder and National and State Time Trial champion, Peter Milostic.
Pamela Hinton has a bachelor's degree in Molecular
Biology and a doctoral degree in Nutritional Sciences, both from the University
of Wisconsin-Madison. She did postdoctoral training at Cornell University
and is now an assistant professor of Nutritional Sciences at the University
of Missouri-Columbia where she studies the effects of iron deficiency
on adaptations to endurance training and the consequences of exercise-associated
changes in menstrual function on bone health.
Pam was an All-American in track while at the UW. She started cycling
competitively in 2003 and is the defending Missouri State Road Champion.
Pam writes a nutrition column for Giana Roberge's Team Speed Queen Newsletter.
Dario Fredrick (www.wholeathlete.com)
is an exercise physiologist and head coach for Whole Athlete™. He is a
former category 1 & semi-pro MTB racer. Dario holds a masters degree in
exercise science and a bachelors in sport psychology.
Scott Saifer (www.wenzelcoaching.com)
has a Masters Degree in exercise physiology and sports psychology and
has personally coached over 300 athletes of all levels in his 10 years
of coaching with Wenzel Coaching.
Kendra Wenzel (www.wenzelcoaching.com)
is a head coach with Wenzel Coaching with 17 years of racing and coaching
experience and is coauthor of the book Bike Racing 101.
Richard Stern (www.cyclecoach.com)
is Head Coach of Richard Stern Training, a Level 3 Coach with the Association
of British Cycling Coaches, a Sports Scientist, and a writer. He has been
professionally coaching cyclists and triathletes since 1998 at all levels
from professional to recreational. He is a leading expert in coaching
with power output and all power meters. Richard has been a competitive
cyclist for 20 years
Andy Bloomer (www.cyclecoach.com)
is an Associate Coach and sport scientist with Richard Stern Training.
He is a member of the Association of British Cycling Coaches (ABCC) and
a member of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES).
In his role as Exercise Physiologist at Staffordshire University Sports
Performance Centre, he has conducted physiological testing and offered
training and coaching advice to athletes from all sports for the past
4 years. Andy has been a competitive cyclist for many years.
Kim Morrow (www.elitefitcoach.com)
has competed as a Professional Cyclist and Triathlete, is a certified
USA Cycling Elite Coach, a 4-time U.S. Masters National Road Race Champion,
and a Fitness Professional.
Her coaching group, eliteFITcoach, is based out of the Southeastern United
States, although they coach athletes across North America. Kim also owns
a resource for cyclists, multisport athletes & endurance coaches around
the globe, specializing in helping cycling and multisport athletes find
Advice presented in Cyclingnews' fitness pages is provided for educational
purposes only and is not intended to be specific advice for individual
athletes. If you follow the educational information found on Cyclingnews,
you do so at your own risk. You should consult with your physician before
beginning any exercise program.
Fitness questions and answers for February 2, 2003
Training during seasonal illness
Losing excess muscle
Training during seasonal illness
I wanted to get your take on training during a head or chest cold. I have
small children and this year I seem to catch every cold they bring home. Is
your advice to train through the colds or rest and fully recover before getting
back on the bike?
Eddie Monnier replies:
The short answer is if the symptoms are above the neck (scratchy throat,
runny nose, etc.) and you feel like training, it's okay to train at light
to moderate intensities. If at any time during your workout you feel worse,
I would recommend stopping.
However, if the symptoms are below the neck (chest cold, deep cough, etc.),
it's best to forego exercising until you are better as the risks of spreading
the illness and/or developing a more serious ailment are too great (e.g.,
Thomas Weidner, director of the Athletic Training Research and Education
Laboratory at Ball State University, did a study where they injected 50 people
with rhinovirus. The group was split into two, with one exercising at 70 percent
of max heart rate for 40 minutes per day. The other was sedentary except for
normal activity (e.g., going to class or part-time work). The group that exercised
reported feeling better after working out. The groups were the same as far
as intensity and duration of symptoms.
Ric Stern replies:
Whether you train, ride the bike, or rest during your illness, will in part
be dependent upon your exact symptoms. For instance, with symptoms above your
neck, no fever or (abnormal) muscle aches or pains, and no productive cough
it maybe possible to do some easy, low intensity, shorter than normal riding.
On the other hand, if you do have the above symptoms then you should avoid
exercise. Full details can be found at www.cyclecoach.com/illness.htm
Finally, none of this information should replace advice from your physician.
Hi, I am 27 years old, I weigh 89kg and am 6ft tall. I have been riding
consistently now for 4 months and starting racing in the lowest grade at our
local cycle clubs. These are short races in the summer of about 45 minutes and
I have placed in the top three in my three outings. I train by doing approx.
6 rides per week at an average of 50km per ride, including the race.
I find that when I begin my rides that my legs don't feel that they have
the energy that they do at the end of the race, I therefore find it a lot easier
to sprint or to dramatically pick up the pace after about 40km.
I do stretches before the ride (standard types) and warm up at 100-105 cadence
slow pace for about 10 minutes at the start of the ride. I do have virtually
no calves and feel that my legs are a little underpowered.
Do you have an answer for the lack of energy (and tightness) in my legs
for the first 30 to 40 km's
Dave Palese replies
It sounds like your aren't completely warmed up when the races start. My
guess is that you are starting the race a little on the cold side, the race
starts fast (I'm guessing that at only 45 minutes, the races must be high
intensity. A criterium format or some variation), you struggle for the first
part of the race until there is a slight lull in the action. After the little
rest you get in the low point of the race, just time enough for your legs
to open up a bit, and you come back with legs blazin' for the final. At least
you got it when it counts! But you'd probably like some legs for the early
part of the race too. Here a few thoughts and suggestions for warming-up.
Warming-up is a pretty personal affair. Everyone has their own routines that
they use for different events. Each type of event demands a different style
of warm-up. The general rule is the shorter and more intense the event, the
longer and higher the intensity during the warm-up. So for a short, 45 minute
crit, your warm-up might be between 30 and 40 minutes. For a long road race,
sometimes just rolling over to the start will do. But let's look at your pre-crit
There are several reasons for you to warm up prior to a training session
or race: increased blood flow to the working muscles, increased availability
of oxygen to the working muscles; and increased body and muscle temperature.
All of these allow the muscles to work more efficiently. You basically want
to work for a short time at the intensity you are going to ask your body to
work at the beginning of the event. So for a crit, that's a hard effort. For
a road race, that might start more gradually, a lighter intensity warm-up
might be the ticket. I always tell riders, you want to get that first hard
effort out of the way during your warm-up where it doesn't matter.
Let's back up for just a second to discuss race preparation. Preparing for
a weekend race, let's say on a Sunday, starts on Friday. I suggest to my riders
that they take the day two days prior to an event completely off the bike.
If the rider does this a few times and we find that some light activity would
be better, then we go that route. But in general, two days prior is a day
The day before your race, go out for a short, 60-90 minutes, very easy ride.
I call this training day an "opener". The idea is to go out, loosen up after
the day off, check your bike over and make sure that you are ready for tomorrow.
During this ride do a few jumps of 8-10 seconds. These are out of the saddle
sprints from a slow roll, at about 90% effort. Keep the efforts short but
intense. How many sprints you do depends. Do them until you feel like you
are firing on all cylinders. Once you feel like all is good, small ring it
home and rest up for tomorrow. If you aren't feeling good after four sprints,
it isn't going to happen, so again, small ring it home and get some rest.
On race day start your warm-up about an hour before your event is scheduled
to start. If your races are run anything like most are here in the states,
that'll give about an hour and a half before your race actually starts. Unless
you live like a three hour ride to your races, there is no better training
than to ride to your races and ride home. If you do live a distance from the
event, try driving a point that is about an 30-40 minutes away and park your
car. Throw a back pack over your shoulder and go. Each week park the car a
bit further away to add time. I would say that a ride of 90 minutes is far
enough. The ride over should be very easy and relaxing and can include the
intensity discussed below. When you get to the venue, stash your bag in a
friends car. Riding to and from races will make you look hardcore and you
will be envy of all you cycling buddies! After the race ends and war stories
have been traded, you'll throw your bag on and ride off into the sunset. Everyone
will just sigh and say, "There goes Steve. He's hardcore." Try it sometime.
If you can't ride over, I always tell riders to bring a wind trainer. You
probably know the venue for your club race pretty well, but when you travel
on weekends to new events, you never know what the roads will be like. The
trainer lets you always have an option and a great amount of control over
how you warm-up.
Whether on the trainer or on the road, the basic of the warm-up are the same.
Take about 10 minutes or so, depending on your time constraints, to just let
your legs fall around and loosen up the knees and hips. Slowly, over 10-15
minutes start building the intensity. You should be sweating by this point.
Also remember to drink during your warm-up. Now do 2 short, 5 minutes Threshold
intervals building up to about 84-90% of your max heart rate. Separate them
by 3 minutes of easy spinning. Then spin real easy for 5 minutes or so. Get
off the bike. And if you are warming up on the trainer, take he bike off.
Get yourself ready to race and go tool around. Find a straight stretch of
road and do a couple of jumps similar to what you did the day before during
the opener. At this point you should be ready. If you look over what I just
outlined, all you have done expose you systems to the efforts you are going
to demand of them in a few minutes time.
Try this format a couple times and see how it works. I think you'll notice
a difference. Try some variations on it too. Like I said warm-ups are very
personal. Find what works for you.
And if you nail a top three again this week, it's time to upgrade.
I'm 55 years old and race on the road as a cat 4 and dirt as an expert.
My question is, I'm trying to lose some weight this season. I'm 5'6" and weigh
140lb. I'm in my base training at the present time and am riding 5 days a week
and doing weights and treadmill work 2 days. I ride the Computrainer for an
hour on Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday, then, depending on the weather [I live
in KS.], I ride 2-4 hrs outdoors on Saturday, and Sunday. On Monday and Thursday
I do weights and run, 1 hour workouts.
I know about the calorie deficit and am doing that. My intake is around
2000 calories a day. I'm hungry all the time and my weight will go from 139
one day to 143 next. I can't seem to lose that last 4lb and stay there. I want
to be at 135 +/- 2 by April when our season gets going well.
Any ideas on how I can keep it down and not have the shakes all the time?
Dave Palese replies:
In my humble opinion, I don't think weight loss is something you need to
be concerned with.
For a male at 5' 6", and 55 years of age, 140 is a pretty ideal weight. I
can't imagine that you have much fat on you at that height and weight.
If you are feeling symptoms of any kind, as you elude to at the end of your
message, I would do two things. First I would not strive to create a deficit
of any kind. Eat a number of calories equal to your BMR plus the estimated
number of calories expended through exercise and activity. If the symptoms
persist, I would see your doctor.
But, the long and the short of it is, I don't think weight loss needs to
be one of your goals.
Kim Morrow replies:
I read your height and weight stats and immediately wondered if you were
a climber. Not many competitive male cyclists are your height (5' 6") and
your weight (140 lbs.), unless they have a "climbers" physique. Obviously,
we are all unique in the way in which we are built, but I wondered how you
came up with this target weight of 135 lbs.
I tend to believe that measuring an athlete's body fat percentage - which
also measures lean muscle mass - is a more accurate assessment.
You also mentioned that you are hungry all the time. Be careful in your attempt
to create a caloric deficit that produces these symptoms on a regular basis.
One final idea that you might consider is a reduction in the amount of high
glycemic foods (i.e. breads, starches) consumed during the winter months.
This is the time of year when most athletes training volume and intensity
is reduced, and we all have to fight the battle of shedding those last five
Here in the Midwest, we've been having the normal January surge of cold
weather - for the past week it hasn't gotten above 30 F. I've been doing most
of my stuff on the stationary trainer but it finally cracked me yesterday, and
instead I went out for a couple of hours. Dressed warmly enough, the cold didn't
make me too uncomfortable. So my question: does riding in weather that is say,
less than 40 F, increase the chances for respiratory sickness? I want to get
in my early season distance rides, but is going out in such weather for 5 hours
or so more harmful than beneficial?
Dave Palese replies:
I have never come across a study or any formal write-up on the subject of
cold weather riding being harmful. So, all of my thought as just what I have
learned form my own experience and what those before me clued me into.
The first thing that you should always consider when venturing out in the
winter cold is safety.
Are the roads safe for riding and do you have the correct equipment/clothing.
Proper layering is key. You should have a base layer against your skin on
your upper body, and possibly your lower. Fabrics like Coolmax and Dri-Fit
work well to transport your perspiration away from your skin keeping you relatively
dry. Next is an insulation layer. The thickness of the insulation layer depends
on the temperature. The final layer is the outer shell, which in winter is
best if it comes in the form of a waterproof, windproof and breathable fabric,
like Gore-tex or the like.
I will say one thing about these fabrics. Many time riders complain that
they get very wet on the inside of their jackets in the winter. They paid
all this money for the great jacket and they get soaked! Well, I tell you,
I have been around the outdoor industry for many year having worked at Backpacker
Magazine for several years and then at the North Face for a stint. I have
yet to see a fabric that can keep up with the amount of moisture the human
body produces when it is at work. But, my motto is "It's better to be warm
and wet than cold and dry". So long as you don't spend prolonged amounts of
time standing outside in the cold inactive, as your body temp starts to drop,
you will be pretty comfortable. Also, a cap under your helmet will keep most
of your heat from escaping. Windproof gloves and booties will also keep your
extremities warm and toasty.
Now that I have that out of the way, on to your question. The temperatures
that you mention are not that extreme. Eddy B. used to say "No sprinting outside
if the temperature is below 50 degrees." His thinking was that you would get
sick or at least get a bad cough from breathing in all the cold air. If you
think about it, this doesn't make much sense. Cross country skiers work out
and train all winter in freezing temps, doing threshold and submax efforts,
and they don't get sick. Here in Maine, I have gone out for long rides when
the roads were clear but the temperature was in the single digits.
Here are a few tips and guidelines for training in the winter cold:
1.) Warm-up longer than usual. If you have efforts planned for your ride
that go beyond some simple Tempo riding (sprints or threshold intervals),
give your joints and muscles more time to get warm and lubed up. I recommend
doubling your normal warm-up time to be safe.
2.) Those insulated water bottles not only keep water cold in the summer
but they will keep hot things warm in winter. Fill a bottle with tea, or better
yet, and this is a trick I learned from winter camping, take some hot water
and dilute a half packet or so of instant Jell-O in it. Very tasty! The warm
liquids will help you body stay warmer and cope with all the cold air.
3.) Try to build your long rides around a coffee shop or convenience store
stop. Pull in for 15-20 minutes to warm up and have something warm to drink.
You also might want to have a snack too to keep the fire burning and keep
you warm on the way home.
The simple answer is, 'No", riding outside in cold temps like you have mentioned
shouldn't be harmful if you are prepared.
Eddie Monnier replies:
I have never seen any studies linking cold weather training to any respiratory
illnesses. Most respiratory illnesses are due to viruses, which enter the
body through eyes, nose, etc. after you come into contact with somebody who
is contaminated (viruses, left untreated may sometimes lead to bacterial infections).
But training outside, regardless of temperature, will not increase your susceptibility
(providing you're otherwise healthy).
Furthermore, training outside during cold weather does not cause any other
respiratory ailments. Our cold-weather endurance cousins like x-country skiers
train in temperatures far below what most cyclists would even consider enduring,
and they are some of the most fit of all endurance athletes.
So in addition to following Dave's advice in dressing appropriately, take
care for normal cold weather hazards (e.g., ice patches, drivers not looking
for cyclists in the dead of winter, etc.) but don't worry about making yourself
sick by training when it's cold out.
Could you please tell me the heart rate as a percentage of maximum heart
rate for each training level i.e. level 1 ,2 3, 4.
Dave Palese replies
That's a wrong question to put to a group of coaches. You'll get 5 different
answers from 5 different coaches. But I'll give you my take.
First, I don't refer to the training zones I define for my riders by numbers.
I have found over the years as a rider and then over the more recent as a
coach that the numbers are just a bit cold and not so user-friendly. I refer
to the zones by names that are more descriptive of the work done in that zone.
I have found that riders can more easily understand their training and the
use of heart rate as a tool, when they understand the purpose of the zone
The zones I use look like this. The percentages are of Max Working Heart
Recovery (Up to 65%) Active rest, recovery. Very light activity.
Endurance (66-77%) Basic endurance, aerobic capacity. Light to easy activity.
Tempo (78-82%) Aerobic capacity. Easy to moderate activity. You usually break
a sweat in this zone.
Threshold (84-90%) Anaerobic Threshold. Moderate to hard activity. Labored
breathing occurs at about the mid point in this zone. This change in breathing
is known as the VT or ventilatory threshold. It is believed that the VT aligns
well with an individuals lactate threshold.
Submax (91-100%) Anaerobic capacity. Hard to very hard. The effort here is
pretty much as hard as you can manage for the length of the effort. Submax
efforts generally range from 2-6 minutes'
Max (Maximum effort) Sprints. Simply, as hard as you can go. Heart rate does
not apply to these efforts as they are too short, 8-15 seconds, for the heart
rate to react and rise.
A couple of notes about these zones.
These are also a starting point. Often after a period of time training using
the zones that we set-up initially, a rider and I will tweak the zones to
more effectively fit them as an individual.
Also you should remember that heart rate is not the end all be all of training
intensity. With the advent of the affordable heart rate monitor, I believe
riders today are not as in tune with their bodies and the idea of gauging
your intensity by feel is something many riders don't know how to do. Make
an effort to learn how riding just below your threshold feels as compared
to riding just above it. Being able to do so will give you more control over
your training and that will make your training more effective.
Eddie Monnier replies:
There are all sorts of theories on how to set training zones using heart
rate. I advocate basing zones off the heart rate associated with lactate threshold
(LTHR). A true lactate threshold (LT) test requires drawing blood to measure
blood lactate (often associated with 4 mmol/L). However, LTHR is affected
by test protocol, non-test factors such as diet, stress level, etc. and will
vary with changes in fitness. Consequently, I like to test athletes every
4 weeks or so. As such, I use Joe Friel's approach of having the athlete complete
a 30-minute time-trial. The average heart rate for the last 20-minutes is
a reasonably good proxy for LTHR. We then base the training zones off the
estimate as follows:
Zone Approximate % of LTHR Ex of LTHR of 170 bpm
1. Active Recovery <82% <139 bpm
2. Endurance 82 - 89 139 - 151
3. Tempo 89 - 93 152 - 158
4. Sub-threshold Training 93 - 100 159 - 169
5A. Threshold Training 100 -102 170 - 173
5B. VO2max Intervals* 102 - 105 174 - 179
5C. Anaerobic Intervals* >105% 180+
*HR is not really meaningful when doing intervals at these intensities because
the interval duration is so short that HR doesn't stabilize.
Heart rate is one way to gauge intensity. It is perfectly suitable for lower
intensity efforts. As intensity increases, however, heart rate becomes a less
useful metric for intensity because of the lag between actual effort and heart
rate. The other ways of measuring intensity are RPE (a subjective rating of
perceived exertion) and power. Power meters, which are becoming more affordable,
offer objective and instantaneous feedback on intensity. Each metric has its
inherent strengths and weaknesses.
Of course, training zones (whether by heart rate, power, RPE or all three)
in and of themselves are not particularly meaningful. It's how you use them
in your training program that's important.
Losing excess muscle
I am 6'2" and 185lbs (riding weigh). I feel that I carry a little too much
weight above my waist. The problem is, that it's not fat, but muscle. Genetically
I am more predisposed to increase muscle mass.
Can you prescribe a training program or exercise that would allow me to
trim or slim this excessive mass?
Dave Palese replies:
You might want to try a strength training program based on higher repetitions,
25 for upper body; 20 for lower body, and lighter weights.
The style of strength training I would recommend would be circuit training.
With circuit training, you get the strength building benefits with the added
bonus of a quality aerobic workout. Plus, using lighter weights, the risk
of injury is greatly reduced.
In circuit training, a circuit is defined as several exercises or stations
that work different or similar muscle groups. Circuit training is done by
performing one set of one exercise, then one set of another exercise, then
one set of another exercise, and so on, with little to no rest between exercises,
until you complete the circuit. A circuit can contain as many stations as
you like, but I would try to limit it to 8. When you have completed a circuit,
you will rest and then repeat, completing the number of circuits you want
to do that day. The key to effective circuit training is to keep a steady
pace. Gym machines work really well for this style of strength training since
the transition time between exercises is reduced.
A circuit training workout I might recommend is this:
Warm-up for 10-15 minutes with some light aerobic activity.
Then complete 2 circuits as follows:
Abs (2-3 exercises; 20-30 repetitions each)
The exercise names above are vague on purpose. You should use exercises that
you like and feel you get a good workout from.
Start by doing 2 circuits, doing 25 repetitions for each exercise. Again,
try to limit the amount of rest between stations. Rest for 3-5 minutes between
The weight you use should be one that allows you to complete all of the repetitions,
with the last 3-4 causing a noticeable level of fatigue, but not pushing you
to failure. Lift with a smooth and controlled motion. Twenty repetitions should
take you 30-40 seconds to complete. Work up to doing 3-4 circuits.
[Jason then asked Dave how often the program should be repeated]
The frequency with which you do this can vary. Not only according to the
time of the training year, but also to the individual and the schedule they
have for training.
Here are my suggestions:
During your General Preparation period (Nov-Feb), you might want to do circuit
training 2-3 days per week. During the Specialization period (Mar-Apr), you'll
want to reduce the days in the gym, in favor of more on the bike training.
Through the Competition period (May-Oct), you could hit the gym one day a
week and combine both legs and upper body into one circuit and do it 1-2 times
*Note: The breakdown of the periods above are generalizations. Your yearly
schedule may be different.
Ric Stern replies:
Your weight sounds fine, however, as you're aware the more you weigh the
more power you have to produce to travel at a given velocity.
If it is mainly muscle that you need to loose then the best option is obviously
to shed some of that bulk. This will be achieved through disuse of those muscles.
Therefore, you should do no upper body work, other than that required by your
daily duties. Over time, you will loose the muscles that you do not require,
which will result in a lower weight.
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