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Form & Fitness Q & A

Got a question about fitness, training, recovery from injury or a related subject? Drop us a line at Please include as much information about yourself as possible, including your age, sex, and type of racing or riding. Due to the volume of questions we receive, we regret that we are unable to answer them all.

New addition to the Cyclingnews form & fitness panel

Carrie Cheadle, MA ( is a Sports Psychology consultant who has dedicated her career to helping athletes of all ages and abilities perform to their potential. Carrie specialises in working with cyclists, in disciplines ranging from track racing to mountain biking. She holds a bachelors degree in Psychology from Sonoma State University as well as a masters degree in Sport Psychology from John F. Kennedy University.

The Cyclingnews form & fitness panel

Carrie Cheadle, MA ( is a Sports Psychology consultant who has dedicated her career to helping athletes of all ages and abilities perform to their potential. Carrie specialises in working with cyclists, in disciplines ranging from track racing to mountain biking. She holds a bachelors degree in Psychology from Sonoma State University as well as a masters degree in Sport Psychology from John F. Kennedy University.

Dave Palese ( is a USA Cycling licensed coach and masters' class road racer with 16 years' race experience. He coaches racers and riders of all abilities from his home in southern Maine, USA, where he lives with his wife Sheryl, daughter Molly, and two cats, Miranda and Mu-Mu.

Kelby Bethards, MD received a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from Iowa State University (1994) before obtaining an M.D. from the University of Iowa College of Medicine in 2000. Has been a racing cyclist 'on and off' for 20 years, and when time allows, he races Cat 3 and 35+. He is a team physician for two local Ft Collins, CO, teams, and currently works Family Practice in multiple settings: rural, urgent care, inpatient and the like.

Fiona Lockhart ( is a USA Cycling Expert Coach, and holds certifications from USA Weightlifting (Sports Performance Coach), the National Strength and Conditioning Association (Certified Strength and Conditioning Coach), and the National Academy for Sports Nutrition (Primary Sports Nutritionist). She is the Sports Science Editor for Carmichael Training Systems, and has been working in the strength and conditioning and endurance sports fields for over 10 years; she's also a competitive mountain biker.

Eddie Monnier ( is a USA Cycling certified Elite Coach and a Category II racer. He holds undergraduate degrees in anthropology (with departmental honors) and philosophy from Emory University and an MBA from The Wharton School of Business.

Eddie is a proponent of training with power. He coaches cyclists (track, road and mountain bike) of all abilities and with wide ranging goals (with and without power meters). He uses internet tools to coach riders from any geography.

David Fleckenstein, MPT ( is a physical therapist practicing in Boise, ID. His clients have included World and U.S. champions, Olympic athletes and numerous professional athletes. He received his B.S. in Biology/Genetics from Penn State and his Master's degree in Physical Therapy from Emory University. He specializes in manual medicine treatment and specific retraining of spine and joint stabilization musculature. He is a former Cat I road racer and Expert mountain biker.

Since 1986 Steve Hogg ( has owned and operated Pedal Pushers, a cycle shop specialising in rider positioning and custom bicycles. In that time he has positioned riders from all cycling disciplines and of all levels of ability with every concievable cycling problem.They include World and National champions at one end of the performance spectrum to amputees and people with disabilities at the other end.

Current riders that Steve has positioned include Davitamon-Lotto's Nick Gates, Discovery's Hayden Roulston, National Road Series champion, Jessica Ridder and National and State Time Trial champion, Peter Milostic.

Pamela Hinton has a bachelor's degree in Molecular Biology and a doctoral degree in Nutritional Sciences, both from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She did postdoctoral training at Cornell University and is now an assistant professor of Nutritional Sciences at the University of Missouri-Columbia where she studies the effects of iron deficiency on adaptations to endurance training and the consequences of exercise-associated changes in menstrual function on bone health.

Pam was an All-American in track while at the UW. She started cycling competitively in 2003 and is the defending Missouri State Road Champion. Pam writes a nutrition column for Giana Roberge's Team Speed Queen Newsletter.

Dario Fredrick ( is an exercise physiologist and head coach for Whole Athlete™. He is a former category 1 & semi-pro MTB racer. Dario holds a masters degree in exercise science and a bachelors in sport psychology.

Scott Saifer ( has a Masters Degree in exercise physiology and sports psychology and has personally coached over 300 athletes of all levels in his 10 years of coaching with Wenzel Coaching.

Kendra Wenzel ( is a head coach with Wenzel Coaching with 17 years of racing and coaching experience and is coauthor of the book Bike Racing 101.

Richard Stern ( is Head Coach of Richard Stern Training, a Level 3 Coach with the Association of British Cycling Coaches, a Sports Scientist, and a writer. He has been professionally coaching cyclists and triathletes since 1998 at all levels from professional to recreational. He is a leading expert in coaching with power output and all power meters. Richard has been a competitive cyclist for 20 years

Andy Bloomer ( is an Associate Coach and sport scientist with Richard Stern Training. He is a member of the Association of British Cycling Coaches (ABCC) and a member of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES). In his role as Exercise Physiologist at Staffordshire University Sports Performance Centre, he has conducted physiological testing and offered training and coaching advice to athletes from all sports for the past 4 years. Andy has been a competitive cyclist for many years.

Kim Morrow ( has competed as a Professional Cyclist and Triathlete, is a certified USA Cycling Elite Coach, a 4-time U.S. Masters National Road Race Champion, and a Fitness Professional.

Her coaching group, eliteFITcoach, is based out of the Southeastern United States, although they coach athletes across North America. Kim also owns, a resource for cyclists, multisport athletes & endurance coaches around the globe, specializing in helping cycling and multisport athletes find a coach.

Advice presented in Cyclingnews' fitness pages is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended to be specific advice for individual athletes. If you follow the educational information found on Cyclingnews, you do so at your own risk. You should consult with your physician before beginning any exercise program.

Fitness questions and answers for April 3, 2007

Insoles for cyclists
Abductor muscles seizing up
Saddle rash
Stomach bloating
Shims versus sole inserts
Lateral saddle adjustment
Cleat/shoe recommendation
Longer cranks?
Improving pedal stroke
Leg pain

Insoles for cyclists

Since cyclists only apply force through the balls of the feet, not the heels, is arch support important for cycling shoes?

Kevin Kohler
Los Angeles, CA, USA

Scott Saifer replies:

In a word, the answer to your question is "yes", for at least a significant fraction of cyclists. Here's the biomechanical explanation: The force delivered at the ball of the foot is generated by muscles at the hip, thigh and lower leg. It has to pass through the lower leg and foot. The foot acts as a lever.

In many but by no means all riders, delivery of force down the lower leg and into the foot causes at least a small amount of collapse of the arch, which in turn causes medial rotation of the tibia (the lower leg turns inwards a few degrees). This changes the relative orientation of the upper and lower leg bones where they contact in the knee.

In many riders, that change puts the bones in an orientation that causes excessive strain on the knee leading sooner or later to an overuse injury. In susceptible riders, an arch support can prevent that arch collapse, the internal rotation and the injury. For these riders, arch support makes the difference between pain-free riding and inability to ride consistently.

The other thing an arch support does is simply take up space in a shoe so an otherwise ill-fitting shoe can feel secure, allowing the rider to relax the feet and lower legs or not to have to over-tighten the shoe straps.

Abductor muscles seizing up

I have done Ironman, multi-sports etc over a period of time on a very basic level but during the last few races my abductor muscles seize up during the rides to the point I have stopped and done nothing for a year.

I decided to get my fitness and health back in order and after one month of base training (general) I decided to get back on the bike.

After one ride the pain is back, I truly think it is something simple, but have been to chiros/physio and acupuncture and nothing works.

Adam Leslie

Steve Hogg replies:

You are unstable on the seat. There are a wide range of potential reasons but they fall into two categories.

1. Less than ideal bike position.
2. A body that is inflexible in the hips and lower back.

Or a combination of both.

If you have a low forward position and you are reaching too far to your aero bars, what you describe is not uncommon.

Saddle rash

I've been plagued with a rash in a somewhat "sensitive" area for the past few months. Last summer, a new pair of shorts gave me a wicked rash on and around my sit bones after a few rides. I've always "greased" the chamois, and am aware that, as bikers, we have to put up with the odd discomfort associated with many long miles in the saddle. But this rash has stayed with me since then. Can't get rid of it.

I can tell that the skin is broken because I have traces of blood on the tan-coloured chamois and it stings and burns when I shower. Now, my winter training is affected. I can hardly put as much time on the bike as I should or would like to. I've tried applying many types of ointments, creams and gels, but it just won't go away. Any ideas or solutions to help me with this?


Kelby Bethards replies:

I hope this has been taken care of for you already. If not, the rash to me, sounds as if there is a fungal component (yeast infection) that sort of "took" advantage of the wet area and broken down skin.

I would suggest you have it looked at.... or at least try an antifungal, over the counter, cream on it. See if that helps.

Stomach bloating

I just read your reply to JS concerning gastric distress after rides, and I have a similar problem. I am 47 years old, and I have been riding and racing for about 10 years. I too have stomach pain, bloating and a lot of gas after a hard ride. But I also gain weight at a alarming rate.

For example, on most Saturdays I do a team ride in a very hilly part of New England. We ride for about 60 miles, 3 to 3.5 hours. I am not that talented a rider, and I ride with some of the best guys in New England. So I spend a lot of time just trying to hang on. It is pretty much a zone 3/4 ride.

After the ride I don't eat 5 bowls of ice cream or sit on the couch with chips and dip. However, I always gain about 4 or 5 pounds, and it takes a few days to get back down to the weight I was the morning of the ride. Also, my stomach sticks out a mile, and I look like I am pregnant.

I do not lose any weight ever from these types of rides. In fact, in the summer when I am riding 200+ miles a week, if I use an energy drink, I gain weight. A few weeks ago, I rode by myself so I rode mainly zone 2 and some zone 3, for almost 5 hours. I got in and did not eat everything in sight, but as you can guess, I was hungry.

I went to a program that tells you how many calories you burn while riding, and I figured I could have consumed close to 6000 calories to break even. I wasn't even close. I gained 7 pounds. I took about 4 days to get my weight back down. That day I used Perpetuem by Hammer nutrition, but I rode yesterday with my team using only orange juice and the same thing happened.

I don't know if this is enough information to go on, so here is a little more. I get up at 6 and eat a few eggs and a bagel, and maybe a small bowl of cereal. I am done eating at say 7, and I don't start riding till 9. I am lactose intolerant, but I drink soy milk and rarely have any dairy. If you guys can figure this out, you get a medal.

Jim W

Kelby Bethards replies:

In order to gain weight that fast, it seems mostly like water weight. Most humans won't gain 5-8 pounds in an evening, and you should have, as you have correctly ascertained, burned some calories on the ride, thus need calories to maintain a steady weight. Granted if you can eat 4 lbs of spaghetti that eve, and drink 2 lbs (a quart) of fluid, well then yes you will gain weight, for a temporary period, but this is not weight "put on" the body.

Are you starting the rides dehydrated? (Yellow urine prior to riding - not right after drinking coffee).

Shims versus sole inserts

I was wondering if you need to use sole inserts such as the ones from Specialized to overcome pronation if you already are using Lemond shims to counteract this?

Thanks in advance on any insight you can give me.

Giancarlo Bianchi

Steve Hogg replies:

The Specialized forefoot wedges and the Lemond wedges are two methods to achieve the same or similar result. So the simple answer is no, providing the overall amount of wedging stays the same.

Lateral saddle adjustment

I was wondering if Steve could elaborate on the FSA seatpost capable of lateral adjustment once a minor modification has been made. I have a FSA K-Force with DATA seat clamp and have reservations about trying to modify it. It would appear the modification required could potentially compromise the seat clamp's structural integrity. Perhaps FSA changed the design since Steve's original article.

I have a functional leg length discrepancy and associated muscle imbalances. I discovered this when I herniated the disc between my L4 and L5 while doing squats in the off season two years ago. I have suffered at least some form of mild to severe sciatica since. I have seen multiple orthopedic surgeons, physical therapists, chiropractors, massage therapists etc with some improvement. However, I still have a tendency to drop my hip while riding and if you drop a plum line from my knee in the forward position the intersection is different from one side to the other.

My sciatica off the bike has improved to almost nonexistent, but usually still appears while riding. What I assume to be my right piriformis gets aggravated and then pain starts to shoot down my leg. My sciatica seems to now be a muscle issue as opposed to a disc. The pain and discomfort often prohibits me from training and racing at a level I was capable of before the back injury. I am a 34 year old male and a cat 2 on the road.

I stretch religiously and do pilates. I have even tried unilateral exercises. I have the book Overcoming Neck and Back Pain as well as numerous other references. I have spent significant amounts time and energy to correct this problem off the bike, but have come to the conclusion that perhaps the only option left is finding a bike position which will compensate for my issues.

I discovered while riding indoors that if I sit off to one side on the saddle the hip and leg don't bother me as much. I repeated the plum line from the front of the knee and found while sitting off to one side I can eliminate the difference. Obviously sitting off center of the saddle will cause saddle discomfort issues over time. I read all you advice and articles with much interest and recall your comment about modification of the FSA seatpost for lateral saddle adjustment.

I am very interested in exploring lateral adjustment further. My only concern is will this merely be a short term comfort solution while ignoring the root cause? Could I possibly slowly move the saddle back to center over time as a long term solution to help correct my pelvic dysfunction?


Steve Hogg replies:

There is no compromise to the structural integrity of the Data Head clamp providing you have the correct one. If you do, it is an assembly of 3 aluminium pieces plus two allen bolts, two countersunk washers and two tubular nuts. On the upper half of the seat rail clamp (serrated upper surface) there are two small projections that locate the upper part of the seat rail clamp laterally underneath the top piece (serrated lower surface) that the allen bolts screw into.

Grinding the two small projections off should not compromise the posts integrity in any way as they serve no structural purpose and are used to centre the clamp. That said, and if you want to proceed and you feel there is a problem, then don't do it.

Yes, it is ALWAYS better to solve root cause problems than to effect mechanical solutions. My experience is that many of the people that I have laterally offset need to become more centered over time because of their own efforts off the bike to improve how they function; the removal or partial removal of a stressor(s) by having the seat off the centreline in bid to become more functionally symmetrical on bike; or both.

Cleat/shoe recommendation

Steve Hogg mentioned in the March 6 Form & Fitness Q&A that the combination of Speedplays and Northwave shoes do not have enough rearward adjustment to get the ball of the foot properly setup.

Can you recommend pedal(s) and/or shoes that allow the ball of the foot to lie ahead of the axle the appropriate amount? I guess one should go shoe shopping with the old pair to compare mounting hole lineups.

I am struggling (besides a hip twist/pedaling symmetry issue) with getting the ball ahead of the pedal axle the appropriate amount with Time RXS pedals and Diadora shoes.

Shawn Downing
Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Steve Hogg replies:

The shoes that I rarely have a problem with fitting a 3-bolt cleat to where I would put it (Speedplay aside) are Specialized, Nike, DMT, Shimano, Sidi, Diadora and Gaerne.

Speedplay have about 5 mm less rearward adjustment on their 3-hole baseplate compared to other systems but they do make an alternate adaptor (part no. 13330) that redresses this with 13-14 mm more rearward adjustment potential than their standard baseplate.

Longer cranks?

I would like to see the rationale for this statement in the March 13 Q&A

"Assuming you are using 53/39 chainrings, a fairer test would be to add just under 3% to your chainring size. For the 53 you have now, that would equal a 54 tooth if you want to be conservative and a 55 tooth if you want to be less conservative. For the 39 ring, replace it with a 40. Then go and ride for a period with similar foot speed and a slightly higher gear at slightly lower cadence and you will be making a fair comparison don't understand the relation you're driving at with this post."

Given the same power, longer cranks = slower cadence. If one is to increase the chain ring size and keep the same cadence this yields greater power and greater stresses on the body. I would think that crank arm length is of more import to fit than "speed".

Dave Krenik

Steve Hogg replies:

Many people who try longer cranks struggle with them. Sometimes it is because the cranks are too long for their particular case and there are a lot of proportional and functional reasons as to why that can be so. But that is not what you are asking. I am not suggesting that the rider gear up proportionally and ride at the same cadence for increased power. I was suggesting to someone who had tried long cranks and wasn't happy, that they should explore one more aspect of changing crank length before they discontinue their experimenting.

If crank length increases, for some, all that happens is that they pedal the same gear while moving their legs through a greater range of movement for no gain other than a marginal improvement in leverage needed to push that gear but with greater effort needed to control the larger range of motion. Some people in this situation compensate by riding a gear higher to lessen the requirement for coordination.

Unless the crank length change is extreme, increasing crank length is not worth a tooth of gearing at the back and a lot of people strain themselves by doing so. If this is the case, the solution is to gear up the chainring size proportionally to match the increase in crank length. That way, cadence (and the requirement to coordinate the increased range of motion) can be lower for the same power out put and road speed.

It works for some, not all, and is worth trying if you ever change your crank length.

Improving pedal stroke

My riding friend has noticed the following in my pedal stroke:

"Basically your right knee comes out from the frame at top of the pedal stroke and comes back in to the frame on a down stroke. At the same time your pelvis rocks a little bit as the right legs pushes down on the pedal. Your upper body remains reasonably stable when all this happens. This pattern is present at all times - a bit more on high load and a bit less on light load."

And I wonder:

1. If it needs to be addressed, and if yes,
2. How to best achieve a better pedal stroke.

At the moment the only noticeable discomfort I have is a bit of pain in the knee, on the left front patella side.


Steve Hogg replies:

The most likely reason is that you are dropping your left hip under load. This isn't the only possibility though. Which knee is hurting - the left?

If so, you may want to experiment with some Lemond wedges under your left cleat. A common reason for knee pain is uncorrected forefoot varus. If, and I say if, that is what is happening, then that would potentially explain the left knee pain as well as the lateral movement of the right knee.

Leg pain

At 41 years of age I guess I am a bit of a latecomer to cycling, but the bug has bitten me and for the first time in my life I am enjoying an individual sport instead of a team sport.

I bought a new EMC2 bike in January and had it fitted using the "Dialed In Motion" system. I guess this was a pretty basic setup to get me going and not deal with the finer points of bike set up.

Everything was going fine until the first race that involved big hills. I managed to complete the race but after dismounting my bike I had a lot of muscular pain along the inside thigh muscle on my left leg. I was hobbling along for a couple of hours, but it gradually worked itself out and I was fine the next day. This happened each successive Saturday to either leg after putting in a maximum effort on my bike.

The average race length I am competing in is between 35 and 40kms. I am 176cm in height and 81kg. I am doing about 80-100km a week for training and vary the intensity. My guess it is something to do with my setup. Your help would be appreciated.

Kevin Welsh
Napier, New Zealand

Steve Hogg replies:

It sounds like you are loading your adductors up. If so, that would mean you are unstable on the seat, particularly under the kind of loads you describe. The most likely reasons are that your seat is too high OR you are extremely inflexible in the hips and lower back.

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